Satapatha-Brâhmana, Part 102

BY: SUN STAFF - 19.9 2018

A serial presentation of the Satapatha Brahmana, translated by Julius Eggeling in 1882.

Second Kânda - The Agnyâdhâna, The Agnihotra, The Pindapitriyagña, The Âgrayaneshti, And The Kâturmâsyâni

FIFTH ADHYÂYA. SECOND BRÂHMANA 
B. THE VARUNAPRAGHÂSA OFFERINGS – Part Two

2:5:2:22 - 22. Of these (dishes) there is one for each descendant; as many (children) as there are in the (sacrificer's) family, so many (dishes) there are, exceeded by one. There being one for each descendant, he thereby delivers from Varuna's noose one by one the children born to him; and there being an additional one, he thereby delivers from Varuna's noose those children of his that are as yet unborn: this is why there are (the same number of dishes) exceeded by one.

2:5:2:23 - 23. (In the form of) dishes they are, because it is from dishes that food is eaten; and of barley they are prepared, because it was when they (the creatures) had eaten the barley corn that Varuna seized them. From the winnowing basket she offers, because food is prepared by means of the winnowing basket. The wife offers (together with her husband): thus he delivers his offspring from Varuna's noose through conjugal union.

2:5:2:24 - 24. She offers previously to the sacrifice, previously to the oblations, since the people do not eat offerings, and the Maruts are the people. Now when Pragâpati's creatures, being seized by Varuna, became rent all over, and sat and lay them down, breathing in and breathing out, then the Maruts destroyed their sin; and so do the Maruts now destroy the sin of his (the sacrificer's) offspring. This is why she offers previously to the sacrifice, previously to the oblations.

2:5:2:25 - 25. He 1 offers in the southern fire, with the text (III, 45), 'Whatever (sin we have committed) in the village and forest,'--for both in the village and in the forest sin is committed;--'whatever in society and in our own self,'--by 'whatever (we have committed) in society,' he means to say 'against man;' and by 'whatever in our own self' (indriya), he means to say 'against the gods;'--'whatever sin we have here committed, that we expiate by offering, Svâhâ!'--whereby he says 'whatsoever sin we have committed, from all that we rid ourselves.'

2:5:2:26 - 26. Thereupon he mutters the (verse) addressed to Indra and referring to the Maruts.--Now when the Maruts destroyed the sin of Pragâpati's creatures, he thought within himself, 'I hope they will not destroy my creatures.'

2:5:2:27 - 27. He muttered that (verse) addressed to Indra and referring to the Maruts. Indra indeed is the nobility, and the Maruts are the people; and the nobility are the controllers of the people: 'They shall be controlled,' he thought; and therefore (that verse, Vâg. S. III, 46) is addressed to Indra.

2:5:2:28 - 28. 'Let there not, O Indra, be (fight) for us here in battles with the gods, since there is a share for thee in the sacrifice, O fiery one!--for thee, the mighty showerer of gifts, whose Maruts the song of the offerer stream-like celebrates.'

2:5:2:29 - 29. He then makes her say the text (Vâg. S. III, 47), 'The men skilled in the work have done the work,'--those skilled in the work have indeed done the work;--'with pleasing song;'--for with song they have done it. 'Having done the work for the gods;'--for the gods indeed they have done the work; 'go home, ye companions!'--they are now together with her while she is led thither from an other place: hence she says, 'ye companions' (sakâbhû, 'being together'). 'Go home,' she says, because that wife doubtless is the hind part of the sacrifice, and he has just now made her take her seat to the east of the sacrifice. 'Home' doubtless means the house, and the house is a resting-place: hence he thereby makes her rest in that resting-place, the house.

2:5:2:30 - 30. Having led her back (to her seat) the Pratiprasthâtri returns (to his place by the side of the southern altar). They now trim the fire 1. When the fire has been trimmed, both (the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthâtri) make the second libation (of butter). Thereupon the Adhvaryu, having called (on the Âgnîdhra) for the 'Sraushat,' chooses the Hotri. The chosen Hotri then seats himself on the Hotri's seat beside the northern altar; and having seated himself, he urges (the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthâtri) to proceed. Being thus urged to proceed, they both take up the spoons and step across (to the south side of the fires). After stepping across and calling for the 'Sraushat,' the Adhvaryu says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-prayer on the kindling-sticks!' and 'Pronounce the offering-prayer!' at each (subsequent fore-offering). Pouring (the butter in the spoons) together (into the guhû) at the fourth 2, they both proceed with the nine fore-offerings 3.

2:5:2:31 - 31. Thereupon the Adhvaryu says (to the Hotri) 'Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Agni!' referring to Agni's butter-portion 1. Both (the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthâtri) having taken four 'cuttings' of butter, they step across (to the north side of their respective fires). Having stepped across and called for the 'Sraushat,' the Adhvaryu says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-formula to Agni!' After the 'Vashat' has been uttered, they both pour out the oblation.

2:5:2:32 - 32. The Adhvaryu then says, 'Pronounce (the invitatory prayer) to Soma!' referring to Soma's butter-portion. Both having taken four cuttings of butter, they step across. Having stepped across and called for the 'Sraushat,' the Adhvaryu says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to Soma!' After the 'Vashat' has been uttered, they both pour out the oblation.

2:5:2:33 - 33. Thus whatever has to be done by speech, that the Adhvaryu does, and not the Pratiprasthâtri. Now as to why the Adhvaryu alone calls for the 'Sraushat.' Here indeed when the 'Vashat' is pronounced,

2:5:2:34 - 34. The Pratiprasthâtri is merely the imitator of what is done (by the Adhvaryu). For Varuna is the nobility, and the Maruts are the people: hence he thereby makes the people the imitators, the followers of the nobility. But were the Pratiprasthâtri also to call for the 'Sraushat,' he would doubtless make the people equal in power to the nobility: for this reason the Pratiprasthâtri does not call for the 'Sraushat.'

2:5:2:35 - 35. The Pratiprasthâtri sits down, after taking the two offering-spoons in his hand. The Adhvaryu then proceeds with those oblations,--viz. Agni's cake on eight potsherds, Soma's pap, Savitri's cake on twelve or eight potsherds, Sarasvatî's pap, Pûshan's pap, and Indra and Agni's cake on twelve potsherds.

2:5:2:36 - 36. Thereupon, being about to proceed with those two oblations of curds, (the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthâtri) exchange (the ram and ewe): the ram which was on the Maruts' (dish of curds) he (the Adhvaryu) places on that of Varuna; and the ewe which was on Varuna's (dish of curds) he (the Pratiprasthâtri) places on that of the Maruts. Now the reason why they make this exchange, is this,--Varuna is the nobility, and the male represents energy: hence they thereby bestow energy on the nobility. The female, on the other hand, is without energy; and the Maruts are the people: hence they thereby cause the people to be without energy. This is why they make this exchange.

2:5:2:37 - 37. The Adhvaryu now says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Varuna!' He then pours an 'under-layer' of butter (into the guhû), takes two cuttings from Varuna's curds, and with either of the two cuttings puts the rant (in the spoon). He then pours butter thereon, replenishes (the place whence) the two cuttings (have been made), and steps across (to the south side of the fire). After stepping across and calling for the 'Sraushat,' he says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to Varuna!' and, on the 'Vashat' being uttered, he pours out the oblation.

2:5:2:38 - 38. Thereupon the Adhvaryu takes both spoons in his left hand; and taking hold of the Pratiprasthâtri's garment, says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the invitatory prayer to the Maruts!' The Pratiprasthâtri then makes an 'under-layer' of butter (in his guhû and two cuttings from the curds of the Maruts, and with either of the two cuttings puts the ewe (in the spoon). He then pours butter thereon, replenishes (the place of) the two cuttings, and steps across (to the south of the fire). The Adhvaryu, having called for the 'Sraushat,' says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to the Maruts!' and on the 'Vashat' being uttered, (the Pratiprasthâtri) he pours out the oblation.