Satapatha-Brâhmana, Part 103

BY: SUN STAFF - 19.9 2018

A serial presentation of the Satapatha Brahmana, translated by Julius Eggeling in 1882.

Second Kânda - The Agnyâdhâna, The Agnihotra, The Pindapitriyagña, The Âgrayaneshti, And The Kâturmâsyâni


2:5:2:39 - 39. The Adhvaryu then proceeds with the cake on eleven potsherds for Ka; and having made that offering, he says, 'Pronounce the invitatory prayer to Agni Svishtakrit (" the maker of good offering")!' The Adhvaryu then takes cuttings from all (his) oblations, one from each; and the Pratiprasthâtri also takes one cutting from that oblation of curds (to the Maruts). They then pour twice butter upon (the portions), and step across (to the south side of the fires). On stepping across and calling for the 'Sraushat,' the Adhvaryu says, 'Pronounce the offering-prayer to Agni Svishtakrit;' and after the (concluding) 'Vashat,' they both pour out the oblation.

2:5:2:40 - 40. The Adhvaryu now cuts off the fore-portion. Having then cut off the Idâ piece by piece, he hands it to the Pratiprasthâtri; and the Pratiprasthâtri puts thereon two cuttings from the Maruts' curds. He (the Adhvaryu) then pours twice butter thereon. After invoking (the Idâ), they cleanse themselves 1.

2:5:2:41 - 41. Thereupon the Adhvaryu says, 'O Brahman, shall I step forward?' Having put on the (remaining) kindling-stick 2 he says, Agnîdh, trim the fire! He, the Adhvaryu, then pours the clotted butter 1 (in the prishadâgya-upabhrit) into the two spoons (the guhû and upabhrit); and the Pratiprasthâtri also, if he have any clotted butter, divides it into two parts and pours it (into the two spoons); but if there is no clotted butter, he divides the butter in the upabhrit in two parts and pours them out separately. Then both step across (to the south side of the fires). The Adhvaryu, having stepped across and called for the 'Sraushat,' says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the offering-formula to the gods!' and, 'Pronounce the offering-formula!' at each (subsequent after-offering). Thus they both perform the nine after-offerings 2, pouring together (the butter from the spoons) at the (or at every) fourth after-offering. The reason why there are nine fore-offerings and nine after-offerings, is that he thereby delivers the creatures both times from Varuna's noose,--by the former (he delivers) the upright and by the latter those looking to the ground: for this reason there are nine fore-offerings and nine after-offerings.

2:5:2:42 - 42. They both then separate the spoons 3, after laying them (on the altars). Having separated the spoons, and anointed the enclosing-sticks; and having thereupon taken hold of the (middle) enclosing-stick, and called for the (Âgnîdhra's) 'Sraushat,' the Adhvaryu thus addresses (the Hotri) 1, 'The divine Hotris are summoned for the proclamation of success; the human is called upon for the song of praise!' The Hotri then intones the song of praise (sûktavâka). Thereupon both seize their prastara-bunches and throw them (into the fires); both take a single straw each therefrom and remain sitting by (the fires); when the Hotrirecites the song of praise,--

2:5:2:43 - 43. The Âgnîdhra says, 'Throw after!' Both (the Adhvaryu and Pratiprasthâtri) throw (the stalk) after (the prastara); and both touch themselves.

2:5:2:44 - 44. He (the Âgnîdhra) then says 2, 'Discourse (with me)!' [The Adhvaryu asks,] 'Has he gone (to the gods), Agnîdh? He has gone!'--'Bid (the gods) hear!'--'Yea, may (one) hear!'--'Goodspeed to the divine Hotris! Success to the human!'---The Adhvaryu also (afterwards) 3 says (to the Hotri), 'Pronounce the "All-hail and blessing!"' They both throw the enclosing-sticks (into the fire); and after taking up the spoons together, they both place them on the wooden sword 4.

2:5:2:45 - 45. Thereupon the Adhvaryu returns (to the Gârhapatya fire) and performs the Patnîsamyâgas 5. The Pratiprasthâtri, in the meantime, remains waiting. After performing the Patnîsamyâgas, the Adhvaryu steps up (to the northern fire).

2:5:2:46 - 46. He (the Adhvaryu) performs the three Samishtayagus (with the respective texts) 1; the Pratiprasthâtri takes up his spoon (and performs those oblations) silently.--The same garments, worn by the sacrificer and his wife at the Vaisvadeva, should be put on also on this occasion. They now take (the havis) mixed with the burnt scrapings of the Varuna curds, and betake themselves to (the place of) the expiatory bath (avabhritha). This (ablution) stands in relation to Varuna, (being performed) with a view to deliverance from Varuna's power. No Sâman-hymn is sung on this occasion, for at this (sacrifice) nothing whatever is performed with a Sâman-hymn. Having silently walked thither and entered (the water), he (the Adhvaryu) immerses (the vessel containing the scrapings).

2:5:2:47 - 47. With the text (Vâg. S. III, 48), 'O laving bath, laving thou glidest along: with the help of the gods may I wipe out the sin committed against the gods, and with the help of mortals the sin committed against mortals! Preserve me, O God, from injury from the fiercely-howling (demon)!' Those (garments worn while bathing) 2 he may give to whichever (priest) he chooses, since they are not the garments of an initiated person. Even as a snake casts its skin, so does he cast away all his sin.

2:5:2:48 - 48. Thereupon they shave (the sacrificer's) hair and beard; and take up the two fires 1,--for only after changing his place (to the ordinary sacrificial ground) he performs that (other) sacrifice 2, since it is not proper that he should perform the Agnihotra on the uttaravedi: for this reason he changes his place. Having gone to the house 3 and 'churned out' the fires, he performs the full-moon offering. These seasonal offerings doubtless are detached sacrifices; whereas the full-moon offering is a regular, established sacrifice: hence he finally establishes himself by means of that regular sacrifice; and therefore he changes his place (to the ordinary sacrificial ground).



391:1 Paridîrna, i.e. swollen, dropsical.

391:2 In the St. Petersb. Dict. devatâ is here taken as 'organ of sense.'

392:1 For the performance of the Varunapraghâsâh the Adhvaryu and his assistant, the Pratiprasthâtri, have to prepare,--to the east of the Âhavanîya, and at the distance of at least three steps (prakrama) from it,--two altars, separate from each other by about a span (of thumb and fore-finger), one south of the other. The northern one, belonging to the Adhvaryu, is to measure between four and five cubits along the west side, and between three and four cubits along the east side; the two sides being between six and eight cubits distant from each other. The southern altar, reserved for the Pratiprasthâtri; is to be of the usual size of the altar at the haviryagñâ. The ceremonies, detailed in I, 2, Brâhmanas 4 and 5, have to be performed also on the present occasion. In the middle of the east side of the northern altar a stake is fixed in the ground. On the north side of the northern altar, and contiguous with it, a pit (kâtvâla), 1⅓ cubits (the length of the wedge) square, is dug, so as to be separated on the west from the utkara (heap of rubbish) by a narrow passage. With the mould dug up from the pit, the so-called uttara-vedi (upper or north altar) is raised on the northern altar, either of the same dimensions as the pit (1⅓ cubits square) or one third of the area of the northern altar, and so that the stake marks the middle of its east side. In the centre of this mound he makes a hollow (or 'navel'), a span square; and the whole mound is then bestrewed with fine gravel. The texts used while tracing the sides of the pit, thrice throwing the wooden sword within the marked-off space, and raising the uttara-vedi, are given Vâg. S. V, 9-10. During the night the uttara-vedi remains covered with udumbara or plaksha branches or with sacrificial grass. Next morning the two fires for the newly-constructed fireplaces are taken from the Âhavanîya, either by dividing the latter into two equal parts, or by means of two bundles of firewood (threefold bound, see p. 389, note 1), lighted at it, and carried eastwards in a pan covered with sand or mould. While the fires, together with the lustral water and a spoonful of ghee, taken from the pot by five ladlings with the sruva, are taken eastward, the Hotri thrice recites the verse 'Pra devyam deva,' &c.; and the Pratiprasthâtri draws, with the wooden sword, a line from the Âhavanîya to the south-west corner (or 'right hip') of the northern altar, or to the uttara-vedi. The Adhvaryu, standing between the two altars, then besprinkles the uttara-vedi with water, while muttering the texts Vâg. S. V, II; whereupon he pours out on it crosswise the spoonful of clarified butter, with the texts V, 12; and lays, with the mantras V, 13, three enclosing-sticks (paridhi) of pîtadâru wood round the 'navel' (see I, 3, 4, 2 seq.), and puts bdellium, fragrant reed-grass, and the front-hair of a ram on the 'navel' as a foundation (sambhâra, see II, 1, 1, 1 seq.) for the fire, which is then laid down thereon. On a hearth-mound (khara), a cubit square, formed on the southern altar, the Pratiprasthâtri also lays down his fire, after performing the usual fivefold lustration (see p. 2). Thereupon the pranîtâ-water is brought forward in the way set forth at I, 1, 1, 12 seq. Kâty. V, 3, 9-4, 21. For a different mode of transferring the fire to the special fire-places, see p. 396, note 1.

393:1 See II. 5, 1, 11, with note.

394:1 That is, his offspring and cattle.

394:2 The fruit of Capparis Aphylla. According to Sâyana, on Taitt. I, 8, 3, it is karîra-shoots--which he says resemble the Soma-creeper (somavallî)--that are so used; but he also mentions that some authorities take karîra to mean the fruit. According to a sûtra he quotes, above a hundred samî-leaves and above a thousand karîras should be strewn over the two dishes of curds. Cf. Taitt. Br. I, 6, 5, 5.

395:1 A kind of porridge prepared with roasted barley, coarsely ground, and sour curds.

396:1 The author here apparently alludes to a different way of transferring the fire to the new fire-places from that detailed by Kâtyâyana (see p. 392, note 1). The same mode seems to be referred to by the Paddhati on Katy. V, 4 (p. 467). According to this mode (called sarnâropana, or mounting of the fire), the old fires are 'taken up' by means of the two aranis being lighted, or rather heated, at them, and then 'churned out' and placed on the newly-prepared hearth-mounds.

396:2 For the detailed course of procedure, see I, 3, 5, I seq.

396:3 Asamsrishtam eva bhavati sampreshitam. The Kânva recension reads, asamsrishta evâgnir bhavati sampreshitah. Cf. par. 30.

397:1 According to Kâty. V, 5, 7-9, she is either to give the total number or the names of her lovers, or to hold up as many stalks of grass. [If she have none, she is to reply, 'with no one else.' Comm.]--'He makes the wife speak (confess): (thereby) he renders her pure, and then he leads her to penance. Were she not to reveal (the name of) a paramour she has, she would harm a dear relative. Let her declare "N.N. is my paramour," by thus declaring (any one) she causes him to be seized by Varuna.' Taitt. Br. I, 6, 5, 2.

397:2 According to the Black Yagus, the Pratiprasthâtri mutters this formula, while leading the mistress to the place of offering. The sacrificer then recites as the invitatory prayer the verse given in par. 28 (Vâg. S. III, 46); while the offering-prayer (Vâg. S. III, 45) and the text III, 47 (par. 29) are muttered by both the husband and wife. Taitt. I, 6, 5, 3 argues against the practice of the wife being made to pronounce the anuvâkyâ.

398:1 According to Kâty. V, 5, 11, either the mistress alone offers, or she together with her husband. In the latter case, the offering-formula (as well as the dedicatory formula, 'This to the Maruts') is pronounced by both.

400:1 The Kânva text has more correctly, 'He trims both fires;' since it is the Âgnîdhra who has to trim both the northern and southern fires. See par. 29.

400:2 The recipients of the first four fore-offerings are the same as at the normal haviryagña (cf. p. 146 note), viz. 1. the kindling-sticks (samidhs); 2. Tanûnapât (or Narâsamsa); 3. the Ids; 4. the Barhis. The remaining ones are--5. the doors (of heaven); 6. dawn and night; 7. the two divine Hotris; 8. the three goddesses (Sarasvatî, Idâ, and Bhâratî); 9. all the deities to whom offering is made during the sacrifice (see I, 5, 3, 22 seq.). The objects of the first eight offerings are identical with those of the first eight verses of the Âprî hymns.

400:3 Or, 'at every fourth (fore-offering)?' According to the Paddhati on Kâty. V, 5, the butter is poured together at the fourth and seventh prayâgas. See also I, 5, 3, 16.

401:1 See I, 6, 1, 20 seq.

403:1 See I, 8, 1, 18-43.

403:2 See II, 5, 2, 19, and I, 8, 2, 3.

404:1 Prishad-âgya (lit. mottled butter) is clarified butter mixed with sour milk.

404:2 The recipients of the nine after-offerings are as follows: 1. The divine Barhis; 2. the divine doors; 3. the divine dawn and night; 4. the two divine benefactresses (goshtrî); 5. the two goddesses of potent sacrifice (ûrgâhutî); 6. the two divine Hotris; 7. the three goddesses; 8. the divine Narâsamsa; 9. the divine Agni Svishtakrit. Cf. p. 400, note .

404:3 See I, 8, 3, 1 seq.

405:1 See I, 8, 3, 10 seq.

405:2 See I, 8, 3, 20 seq.

405:3 In thus briefly recapitulating the chief points of the course of sacrificial performance, the author's object is merely to assign to each officiating priest--especially to the Adhvaryu and his assistant, the Pratiprasthâtri--his special share of business. In the actual performance, the pronunciation of the formula of 'All-hail and blessing' (see I, 9, 1, 26), of course, comes after the throwing of the enclosing-sticks into the fire (see I, 8, 3, 22).

405:4 See I, 8, 3, 26.

405:5 See I, 9, 2, 1.

406:1 See p. 390, note 3.

406:2 Kâty. V, 5, 30-33, and the scholiasts supply the following particulars: The sacrificer and his wife, accompanied by the priests, are to repair to some quiet part of flowing water. The Adhvaryu then takes the sacrificer by the arm and makes him enter the water. Thereupon he himself enters, strews sacrificial grass on the water, puts a stick on it, and thereon offers a spoonful of butter to Agni. Then follow six oblations, viz. four fore-offerings, performed in the usual way (the one to the Barhis being omitted); p. 407 an oblation of butter to Varuna, and another of the scrapings of curds to Agni and Varuna. Other authorities offer ten oblations instead of six, viz. four fore-offerings, two 'butter-portions' to Agni and Soma, the two oblations to Varuna and Agni-Varuna, and two after-offerings. The Adhvaryu then immerses the butter-pot, with the text Vâg. S. III, 48. Thereupon the sacrificer and his wife bathe without diving, but wash each other's back. They then come out of the water and put on fresh clothes.

407:1 Viz. by lighting (or heating) at them two aranis or churning-sticks, by means of which the fires are transferred to the old hearths. According to the Paddhati, the remaining ceremonies of the ishti, from the offering of the Barhis (see I, 9, 2, 29) to the end, are performed previously to the lifting of the fires.

407:2 Viz. the full-moon sacrifice, see II, 6, 2, 59, where, however, agnau instead of agnî. The construction here is quite irregular. The Kânva text has: kesasmasrûptvâgnî samârohayata udavasâya hy etena yagate.

407:3 That is, to the ordinary sacrificial ground.